2018_Team17

Project Overview  |  Proof of Concept  |  Final Design  |  Fabrication  |  Testing and Results  |  Meet the Team  |  Acknowledgements


Project Overview

Division by Zero has been sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to design and build a new load frame to compress high explosive assemblies for analysis. LLNL’s primary concern with their current load frame is that it is immobile and gets in the way when they are not using it. The purpose of the load frame is to apply a minimum 15 ton downward load that is evenly distributed to an assembly. The load frame must allow accessibility to the assembly while inside the load frame to allow the assembly to be worked on before a downward load is applied. A minimum of two different assemblies that range in size from 3’ tall to 2’ wide must be compatible with the load frame. The load frame must be compatible with a precision granite table on which all assemblies are built. The load frame must either attach to the precision granite table or to the area surrounding the precision granite table. Tooling created by LLNL must be able to interface with the load frame and a load cell (used to measure and record the load force) must be easily accessible while in the load frame. When not in use, the load frame must be removed by an overhead crane and stored. All of the materials used to build the load frame must conform to Class II Division 2 hazardous location regulatory requirements.

Division by Zero has been sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to design and build a new load frame to compress high explosive assemblies for analysis. LLNL’s primary concern with their current load frame is that it is immobile and gets in the way when they are not using it. The purpose of the load frame is to apply a minimum 15 ton downward load that is evenly distributed to an assembly. The load frame must allow accessibility to the assembly while inside the load frame to allow the assembly to be worked on before a downward load is applied. A minimum of two different assemblies that range in size from 3’ tall to 2’ wide must be compatible with the load frame. The load frame must be compatible with a precision granite table on which all assemblies are built. The load frame must either attach to the precision granite table or to the area surrounding the precision granite table. Tooling created by LLNL must be able to interface with the load frame and a load cell (used to measure and record the load force) must be easily accessible while in the load frame. When not in use, the load frame must be removed by an overhead crane and stored. All of the materials used to build the load frame must conform to Class II Division 2 hazardous location regulatory requirements.

Load frames and load frame accessories fall into their own specialized market of material testing equipment. As it stands there are four main competitors in the market. Humboldt Manufacturing, MTS Systems uniaxial load frames, GDS Instruments, and Instron make up the majority of the market. Team 17 has done multiple market researches on the load frame market. The team found that most load frames come in standard sizes and capacities, and that about half the products available cannot accommodate the needs of our customer. Humboldt Manufacturing’s load frames are too small in size and do not meet the load requirements of LLNL. MTS load frames also cannot meet the requirements of LLNL, and their load frames are large and bulky, which is not ideal for LLNL. GDS and Instron produce load frames capable of meeting requirements, however there systems are very large and heavy. The testing surface is too small to contain the assemblies LLNL will be using in there load tests. In preparing to enter this industry Team 17 has found a market that is not currently catered to by the current manufacturers. Team 17’s design will be easily portable and be able to apply large loads. Team 17 has conducted research on its competitors to find their strengths and weakness to see where they can improve.  Due to the limited market for load frames there has been little research done on the frequency, quality, and timing of the buying habits of consumers. For Team 17 to get accurate information they will need to conduct their own research by contacting companies and universities that use load frames. The distribution of load frames is worldwide and is focused on universities and research institutions, because they are used to test materials that are natural and man-made.

 

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Proof of Concept

Division By Zero (DBZ) engineering analyses prove that the load frame concept is able to apply an even load of 30,000 lbs. to a test assembly without mechanical failure. The base plate to which the load frame will interface is fixed to a precision granite table and provides mounting points for the vertical members. The load frame will use attached air bearings to move on the precision granite table and interface with the base plate. The load will be applied evenly by a hydraulic system that is incorporated into the load frame’s crosshead and vertical members. The load frame will attach to an overhead gantry crane with two lifting points in order to be moved between its storage location and point of use.

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Final design

Product Design Specifications:

The Product Design Specifications for DBZ were determined by the specifications that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) set forth as well as specifications that DBZ determined were innovative and integral for a mobile load frame. The design specifications that were determined to be most important are staying under the budget set by LLNL, must be able to accommodate an 18 inch tall by 12 inch wide assembly, apply a 7.5 ton load to the assemblies, and detach from a precision granite table in order to be moved to a storage location. The other design specifications are important, but without the aforementioned specifications DBZ would not have a product that was innovative or cost effective.

The purpose of the load frame is to apply a downward load that is evenly distributed to the assemblies. DBZ designed multiple features that will make their load frame useful for the consumer and differentiate themselves from the competition. DBZ’s load frame is mobile and is able to detach from a precise granite table, this is DBZ’s main selling point for usability. The load frame allows for accessibility to the assembly while inside the load frame to allow the assembly to be worked on before a downward load is applied. The ability to move the load frame allows it to be stored in a separate location and frees up valuable workspace on the granite table.

Project Characteristics:

The bulk of the load frame’s large components were machined at the UNR Mechanical Engineering machine shop. The majority of the frames components are made from 6061 aluminum. This material was chosen because of its strength and lightweight. The main components of the machine consists of three C-channels, a crosshead, and a base plate. The crosshead is an intricate piece that was designed to move up and down the load frame in the vertical direction and houses the hydraulic press and load cell assembly that applies the load to LLNL’s assemblies. The baseplate was designed to attach to LLNL’s precise granite table and allow for easy interfacing between the table assembly and the load frame. The loadframe prototype was designed at half scale to save time and money.

 

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Fabrication

DBZ’s design incorporates many parts that were machined in house and outsourced to a local machine shop. DBZ ordered raw material that was machined into these parts. DBZ used multiple materials for use in their load frame, including 6061 Aluminum, 5052 Aluminum, 514 Steel, and 4140 Alloy Steel just to name a few. The team used the SOLIDWORKS part drawings to create G-Code using Mastercam for use by the CNC mill and lathe. Once all of the parts were machined to spec, DBZ was able to begin the assembly process. The assembly process began by welding the side aluminum channel to the aluminum feet. The steel reinforcement plates and the hand crank bearing were bolted to the side channels and feet. The crosshead and acme screw/guide rod assembly was inserted into the side channels using the bearing mounts machined by DBZ. The bearing mounts were bolted to the side channels and the crosshead assembly was tested to make sure it moved properly before the top channel was installed. The top channel was installed to the top of the side channels using steel brackets and bolts. The drive system was then installed in to the top channel and its operation was tested. The top cover plate was bolted and screwed to the top channel and two side channels to protect the drive system. Finally, the crank rod was press fit into the hand crank and installed through the bearing and drive side channel where the miter gear was installed to the opposite end of the crank rod.

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Testing and Results

The load capacity of the load frame was tested by applying 15,000 lb of compressive force to a test assembly. DBZ calculated the hydraulic pressure required to provide 15,000 lb of force to be at least 2,000 psi. The load cell was not utilized for initial testing as the required interface was not available. The test assembly was constructed from a block of wood topped with a steel plate to simulate the actual experimental assemblies used by LLNL. The crosshead was positioned to place the rod of the hydraulic cylinder approximately 10mm from the steel plate to ensure the maximum rod travel of 50mm would not be exceeded during testing. A hydraulic hand pump pressurized the hydraulic cylinder to 2,000 psi which applied a load of 15,000 lb to the test assembly. After maintaining the load for approximately 30 seconds, and visually inspecting the structure and components of the load frame to ensure they were no areas of failure, the pressure was released from the hydraulic cylinder. The team repeated the test multiple times to prove the load capacity of the load frame under cyclic loading. The load frame performed exactly as designed with a slight amount of elastic deformation visible in the structure, primarily the load frame feet, during testing while the hydraulic cylinder was pressurized. During initial tests there was a moment of apprehension when a few creaks and pops came from the frame, but this was merely due to the frame component connections shifting slightly under stress.

The mobility features of the load frame allow the user to take advantage of valuable shop space without compromising the load bearing capabilities required for material testing. The load frame is scalable to fit any consumer’s need and the included air bearings allow for easy maneuverability on any flat surface it is placed on. Users loved the look of the product as it immediately catches the eye and looks incredibly beefy, which makes them feel comfortable while using it. One complaint that was fielded was that the crank wheel is a little harder to turn to position the crosshead than desired. Overall, the user enjoyed the use of our product. The prototype meets its intended purpose exactly, as the load frame was designed to compress assemblies and it does this successfully.

 

Video Links

Viewpoint 1: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1BFsf_FP2ro-8G-Sy1DYzieJiqLsCncJQ/view

Viewpoint 2: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1K169YVwljOK4p9_lOratORTyx-V-ecqi/view

 

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Meet the Team

 

Brandon Josifko

Over Brandon’s academic career at UNR, he has have accomplished and learned things that he could never have imagined when he was a freshmen. From accomplishing feats such as making the Dean’s list, building a hovercraft, and helping design a load frame for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Brandon has learned a lot. The main thing that he has learned is that when it comes to engineering you never stop learning. Brandon developed skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, and communication at UNR. These skills will be useful to him the rest of his life. Brandon was able to apply these skills to step outside of his comfort zone while working as an engineering intern for Burns’ Machinery in Gardnerville, Nevada. Brandon is from Gardnerville, Nevada and went to Douglas High School located in Minden, Nevada. After graduation, Brandon is looking forward to pursuing a career in engineering and possibly becoming an entrepreneur.

 

Alex Barry

 

Alex’s experience as a student at the University of Nevada has been challenging and rewarding. Alex has been involved in many projects that challenged his engineering knowledge and skills. These projects include a bridge building competition, designing and building a hovercraft, and putting together and soldering a multimeter from scratch. While in school, Alex’s problem solving and deductive reasoning have become much sharper due to the challenging courses and projects he has taken part in. Outside of school Alex enjoys building furniture and fixing anything and everything that breaks, including his car. It breaks down often and he has replaced almost every part on that car. Alex was born and raised in Spokane, WA. Alex’s current goals are to acquire an internship and graduate in the spring of 2018. In the future, he would love to go to work for Boeing.

 

Michal Powell

 

Originally from North Pole, Alaska, Michal moved with his wife and daughter to Reno in 2013 after a stellar 15 year US Air Force career. His time at the University of Nevada has been spent building a solid knowledge base in mechanical engineering which he intends to use at a small engineering firm helping everyday people solve the unexpected problems that life throws at them. Various projects undertaken during his academic career, most notably the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s load frame, have provided him with a greater understanding of the relationships between the theoretical aspects of engineering solutions and their practical, physical application in reality.

 

Uriah Valentine

 

Uriah was born in Carson City and raised in the small rural town of Yerington, Nevada. While in Yerington, Uriah developed a love for mechanics at a young age, taking apart lawnmowers, welding and fixing broken down cars became his day to day routine. At the age of 19, Uriah joined the Marine Corp as a motor transport mechanic and moved to Camp Pendleton. After four years of service, Uriah moved to Reno in 2011 to pursue a degree in mechanical engineering. During his time at UNR, and the Marine Corp, Uriah has developed engineering and leadership skills that will help him succeed in the future.  His passion is developing new vehicles that do not require fossil fuels to run, and are extremely efficient. After college Uriah hopes to be hired by Tesla or any other car manufacturer to develop and test new vehicles.

 

 

Chris Wade

 

Chris has lived in various places around the U.S. including outside of Washington D.C. which gave him different perspectives before moving to Reno.  During his time at UNR he has been involved in several engineering projects, but the most challenging has been building a load frame for LLNL laboratories. Chris has a bachelor’s degree in Biology which has given him a broader view of the world and other ways of thinking. The engineering skills he has developed and refined throughout his academic career include, being able to see a problem from different perspectives and being able to pick the best solution, designing a solution, and relating the things learned in the classroom to everyday life. He has applied these techniques to solve problems in his previous warehouse jobs, as well as working on barns and other animal shelters. Chris’ goals include learning what he can before graduating, and pursuing a job working with deep sea submersibles to explore the ocean.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Acknowledgements

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